کمپوست چیست؟

تهيه كوداززباله هاي خانگي وفضولات حيواني وضايعات كشاورزي درپاكيزگي، بهداشتي كردن وزيباسازي محيط نقش مهمي داردكودي كه ازبازيافت زباله تهيه ميشودكمپوستCompost نام داردكه نوعي كودآلي(غيرشيميايي)است ودرتغذيه گياه نقش مهمي دارد. کمپوست از واژه‌ای لاتین Compositus و به معنای مخلوط یا مرکب اقتباس شده است. کمپوست و بازیافت بقایای حیوانات از هزاران سال پیش شناخته شده بوده است؛ و در اروپا دانشمندانی چون هومر و ارسطو به آن پرداخته‌اند.

بهترین روش برای حذف ضایعات جامد و یا استفاده ازبهینه آن ها تهیه کمپوست است که توسط میکروارگانیسم های مختلف در حضور رطوبت و گرمادر شرایط هوازی صورت می گیرد. با حجم بسیار زیاد پسماندهادر شهرهای بزرگ ، روش کمپوست مقرون به صرفه خواهد بود. در کشورهای مختلف از روش های گازی کردن و پیرولیز جهت تبدیل ضایعات جامد به گاز استفاده شده است. گاز ایجاد شده در ژنراتورها و توربین های بخار نهایتاً به برق تبدیل شده و مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. پس ماندهای آشپزخانه منبع مناسبی برای تولید بیوگاز هستند. بیوگاز حاصل می تواند جایگزین سوخت های فسیلی آشپزخانه گردد.

کمپوست سازی صنعتی روشی سودمند و جایگزینی بسیار سومند برای خاک چال یا همان دفن کردن زباله در مدیریت پسماند بوده که در شهرهای گوناگون جهان مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد. پیشینه کمپوست صنعتی در ایران و تولید کود از زباله‌های شهری از سال ۱۳۴۸ هجری شمسی و در شهر اصفهان آغاز گردیده است. کارخانه ذکر شده توسط شهرداری اصفهان و در جنوب شرقی زاینده رود آغاز به کار کرد. در سال ۱۳۵۱ دومین کارخانه کمپوست در جنوب تهران، در صالح آباد احداث گردید؛ و سومین کارخانه نیز در سال ۱۳۶۸ در شمال شرقی شهر اصفهان توسط یک شرکت سوئیسی طراحی و اجرا شده و مورد بهره‌برداری قرار گرفت.

کود حاصل از روش کمپوست که از پسماندهای کشاورزی، خانگی و خوراکی تولید می‌شود یکی از عالی‌ترین کودها برای مصارف کشاورزی به شمار می‌رود و تولیدکنندگان گل و گیاه نیز امکان بهره‌گیری از این کود را دارند. منیزیوم و فسفات موجود در این کود سبب آبرفتی شدن خاک‌های کشاورزی و جذب سریع تر مواد مغذی درون خاک می‌شود. کمپوست، خاک بسیار غنی و مورد استفاده است که در مکان‌هایی همچون در باغ‌ها، محوطه سازی، باغداری، و کشاورزی به عنوان کود بکار می‌روند. کمپوست به عنوان یک آفت کش طبیعی برای خاک نیز می‌باشد. در خاک پوسال اکوسیستم‌ها برای کنترل فرسایش، زمین و جریان بهسازی خاک، ساخت و ساز تالاب، و به عنوان پوشش دفن زباله بسیار مفید است.

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