ترکیب و میزان تولید خاک و نخاله های ساختمانی

ترکیب و درصد مواد تشکیل دهنده نخاله های ساختمانی در مناطق مختلف دنیا تابع نوع و نحوه زندگی، نوع صنعت ساختمان، ترکیب و بافت جمعیتی و نیز فراوانی منابع قرضه است. عمومی ترین ترکیبات نخاله های ساختمانی شامل آجر، بتن، آسفالت، سنگ ساختمانی، قطعات گچی، چوب، پلاستیک و فلزات هستند. در برخی موارد تا 90 درصد اجزای نخاله ها قابل بازیافت هستند.

حجم نخاله های ساختمانی در کشور آمریکا برای تعمیرات و بازسازی راهها حدود 91 میلیون تن است. و همچنین در ایالت کالیفرنیای آمریکا حدود 12% از حجم محل های تدفین را نخاله ها تشکیل می دهند که معادل 20% حجم کلی آنها می باشد. میانگین تولید نخاله های ساختمانی در این ایالت بیش از 4 میلیون تن در سال است، وزن نخاله های ساختمانی از کشور اروپایی فنلاند که جزء کشورهای توسعه یافته است، حدود یک میلیون تن در سال می باشد. در زلزله بم بیش از 16 میلیون تن آوار ساختمان تولید شده است. در تهران نیز روزانه 19 هزار تن نخاله ساختمانی تولید می شود.

همچنین عمر مفید ساختمانها در کشورهای جهان حدود 40 سال است لیکن در ایران 30 سال برآورد می گردد و نیز 25% بافت شهری فرسوده است و با افزودن بلایای طبیعی چون سیل، طوفان و زلزله هر ساله حجم بسیار بالایی نخاله ساختمانی و یا آوار در شهرها و آبادی های کشورها تولید می شود که سرمایه مالی و انسانی زیادی را تلف خواهد کرد.

بازیافت پسماند یا استفاده مجدد از آنها (تبدیل آن به مواد دیگر) هم به لحاظ کاهش حجم پسماندها و آلاینده های محل دفن و در نتیجه کاهش هزینه های مربوطه و هم به لحاظ جایگزینی آن با مواد اولیه یکی از شاخص ترین عوامل مدیریت پسماند است. در مجموع 10 الی 15 درصد پسماندها غیر قابل بازیافت می باشند. در دهه گذشته یک روش ابداع شده است که پس از پردازش به روش کاهش حجم فیزیکی به عنوان جایگزین مواد سوختی در واحدهای خاصی مانند کارخانه های سیمان به مصرف می رسد یا در نیروگاه های خاصی تبدیل به انرژی برق می شود.

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